Introduction to CIT
The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) is an innovative first-responder model of police-based crisis intervention with community, behavioral healthcare, and advocacy partnerships. The CIT model was first developed in Memphis some twenty years ago and has spread throughout the country.
CIT is a jail diversion program designed to improve the outcomes of police interactions with individuals whose behavior is influenced by mental illness, substance use, mental retardation and related conditions. Officers learn to recognize psychiatric distress and other conditions and how to de-escalate a crisis - avoiding officer injuries, consumer deaths and tragedy for the community. In addition, CIT officers learn how to link people with appropriate treatment, which has a positive impact on fostering recovery and reducing recidivism.
Research has proven that CIT training reduces arrests, the use of restraint, citizen and police officer injuries, hospitalization, and vastly improves the safety and satisfaction of all involved.
The overall goal of the CIT training program is to treat mental illness as a disease, not a crime.
decreased number of injuries to the officers
decreased use of force
improved use of alternatives to arrest and jail
decreased time officers spend in the crisis unit (involuntary commitments)
reduced myths and stigma of mental illness among law enforcement
improved relationships for officers and community
Behavioral Health System:
extended crisis response systems
increased opportunity for earlier intervention
improved treatment outcomes
decreased number of injuries to the consumer
better relationships between consumers and law enforcement officers
removed stigma of unnecessary incarceration in local jails
improved access to treatment
increased chance that the consumer will receive continuous care
In 2006, as part of a larger effort to address jail overcrowding and reduce the rate of incarceration of individuals with behavioral health challenges, the Bucks County Commissioners charged the County's Behavioral Health staff with leading an effort to develop a more effective response to individuals in crisis whose behaviors bring them in contact with police officers. Police officers throughout the County had long complained of being compelled to arrest and incarcerate individuals they believed would be better served in a treatment setting. In 2007, County staff recommended, and the Commissioners approved, the use of HealthChoices Reinvestment funds to enhance the County sponsored crisis service operated by Lenape Valley Foundation. Ultimately, the County opted to include, as recommended by members of the Bucks County NAMI chapter, CIT as a component of the County's larger crisis improvement effort.
In 2008, with the support and encouragement of the Bucks County Commissioners, Bucks County, in collaboration with members of the Bucks County Chapter of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) and other stakeholders, created a Task Force and embarked on the implementation of a Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model for law enforcement departments. Starting with four municipalities in Lower Bucks County, (Bensalem Township, Northampton Township, Bristol Borough, and Bristol Township) 120 individuals representing law enforcement management and the patrol division were provided an introductory six hour training regarding the CIT model and its benefits to the community. Based on the Memphis model, a week long training will be conducted in September 2009 for patrol officers from these four initial police departments leading to certification as a CIT Officer. In the future, it is the intent of the Task Force to make these trainings available to all law enforcement departments throughout Bucks County. As of 2012 Bucks CIT has administered six 40 hour courses training over 180 law enforcement officers.